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Frequently Asked Questions
BDS’ CALUX® assay is the perfect screening tool for the detection of dioxin and
dioxin-like compounds in a wide variety of matrices. The advantages of the newly developed CALUX® bioassay as compared to traditional analysis of chemicals are:
> Extremely sensitive
BDS' CALUX® assay is capable of detecting femtograms (10-15 grams or quadrillionths of a gram).
Using 96-well test systems allows the rapid analysis of large numbers of samples simultaneously.
> Easy sample clean-up / work-up
Compared to classical analysis, extracted samples do not have to be as clean for this bioassay. Hence, sample clean-up and work-up is relatively straightforward.
> Small sample size
The extreme sensitivity of the CALUX® assay allows small sample sizes: only grams of sample are required.
> Much reduced cost compared to instrumental methods
BDS’ CALUX® assay is straightforward to perform, uses small sample, gives rapid results and doesn’t need expensive apparatu.
> Applicable to a wide variety of matrices
BDS’ CALUX® assay has succesfully been used to determine dioxin content in the following matrices:
» Food and Feed samples (Animal Feedstuffs, Plant and vegetable matter,
Animal fat, Oils, Milk, Egg, Cheese)
» Environmental samples (Soils / clays, Stack samples, Air samples, Sediments)
» Water samples (Surface water, Groundwater, Drinking water, Wastewater,
Process aqueous effluents, Sewage and sewage sludge)
» Tissue samples (Animal tissues, Human tissues, Blood)
» Other (Pure chemicals (pharmaceuticals, Agrochemicals, fine chemicals etc),
> Biologically relevant
Being cell based, BDS' CALUX® assay is more biologically relevant than instrumental techniques. The CALUX® assay operates through measuring the biological response elicited following binding at the receptor in a living cell, the same receptor that is preserved in man, mammals, fish, birds etc. In the CALUX® cells, respiration and metabolisation are taking place as are the mechanisms of receptor binding. The net result is that the CALUX® assay, to a significant extent, mimics the biological process that is thought to be a significant part of the mechanism of dioxin toxicity. This mechanism of ligand-receptor binding, opens the way for using the CALUX® assay for pharmaceutical research. Materials which may be agonists or antagonists at the receptor can be investigated in high rate screening.
> Analysis of total toxic equivalence of chemical mixtures in samples
BDS' CALUX® assay is the perfect screening tool for assessing complex mixtures of chemicals in a wide variety of matrices. Instead of determining the number of individual congeners in a complex mixture, BDS' CALUX® assay analyses the total toxic equivalence of chemical mixtures in samples under investigation. Once a contaminated sample has been identified, congener specific identification of chemicals can be carried out using high resolution HRGCMS analysis. BDS is able to offer classical analysis through its collaboration with established partners.